Archimedes was a renowned mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer of ancient Greece. He was born in Syracuse, a Greek city-state located in Sicily, in 287 BC. Archimedes was the son of an astronomer and mathematician named Phidias.

Archimedes is best known for his contributions to mathematics and physics. He is credited with discovering the principles of buoyancy and displacement, which he famously demonstrated by sitting in a bathtub and shouting "Eureka!" when he realized the solution to a problem he had been working on. Archimedes also developed the concept of the lever, which he famously said could move the world if given a place to stand.

In addition to his work in physics, Archimedes was also an accomplished mathematician. He made significant contributions to geometry, including the calculation of the value of pi and the development of the method of exhaustion for calculating the area and volume of irregular shapes. He also developed the Archimedes' principle, which is used to calculate the density of an object.

Archimedes' inventions include the Archimedes screw, a device used to move water from low-lying areas to higher ground, and the Claw of Archimedes, a weapon used to defend Syracuse against the Romans during the Second Punic War.

Archimedes was married and had at least one son, but little is known about his personal life. He lived most of his life in Syracuse and was killed by a Roman soldier during the sack of the city in 212 BC, at the age of 75. His death is often considered a tragic loss to science and mathematics, as many of his works were lost or destroyed during the war.

Archimedes' legacy continues to influence science and mathematics today. His contributions to the fields of physics and mathematics are still studied and applied, and his methods and principles continue to inspire new discoveries and inventions.

Archimedes was born in Syracuse, Sicily, which was a Greek city-state at the time. He was the son of Phidias, an astronomer and mathematician, and was likely educated in Alexandria, Egypt, which was known for its great schools of science and mathematics.

In addition to his work in physics and mathematics, Archimedes was also an accomplished engineer. He designed machines for war and peace, including a heat ray that used mirrors to set enemy ships on fire, and a planetarium that accurately showed the movements of the planets.

Archimedes' contributions to geometry were groundbreaking. He discovered the relationship between the surface area and volume of a sphere, and he calculated the value of pi to a greater degree of accuracy than anyone before him. His method of exhaustion, which used inscribed and circumscribed polygons to approximate the area and volume of irregular shapes, was a precursor to modern calculus.

Archimedes' death was a tragedy for science and mathematics. According to legend, he was killed by a Roman soldier during the sack of Syracuse, but the details of his death are unclear. Some accounts say that he was killed while working on a mathematical problem and refused to stop to speak with the Roman soldier, while others say that he was killed simply because he was a prominent figure in the city.

Despite the loss of many of his works, Archimedes' legacy has continued to influence science and mathematics for centuries. His principles of buoyancy and displacement are still used in modern engineering, and his discoveries in geometry and physics have paved the way for countless advancements in these fields.

Archimedes' work in mathematics and physics was not widely known during his lifetime, and it was only after his death that his contributions began to be recognized. The ancient Greek philosopher and mathematician, Plutarch, wrote a biography of Archimedes that helped to popularize his work and increase his reputation.

Archimedes was also known for his eccentricities and love of puzzles. He is said to have enjoyed spending time alone, lost in thought, and he was known to have solved many difficult mathematical problems in his head. According to legend, he once asked a friend to bring him a large sheet of parchment so that he could write down his latest discovery, but when the friend arrived, Archimedes was so absorbed in thought that he didn't notice the parchment and continued to work out the problem on the sand beneath his feet.

In addition to his work in science and mathematics, Archimedes was also a patron of the arts. He was a close friend of the poet and playwright, Euripides, and he is said to have written a play himself, although no copies of it have survived.

Archimedes' influence on science and mathematics continued long after his death. His work was studied and built upon by many famous mathematicians and scientists, including Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton. In recognition of his contributions to science, the Archimedes Prize is awarded every two years to a scientist or group of scientists who have made a significant breakthrough in their field.